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Vergence–accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue

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To reorder your columns, click the item but do not clear the check box , and then click Move Up or Move Down until the items are in the order that you want. You must click Details on the View menu in order to display the details of the files in the selected folder. To change the width of the columns, use the appropriate method: Method One On the View menu, click Choose Details , and then click the name of the column that you want to adjust. In the Width of selected column in pixels box, enter the size that you want, and then click OK.

Method Two Widen columns manually by positioning the mouse pointer between two border buttons of the column headings, the pointer turns into a double arrowhead. Click and hold the left mouse button, and then drag the column to the desired width. Name, Size, Type and Modified settings are enabled by default. Not all file formats will support these additional column settings.

For example, a Microsoft Word document can contain Author information, but a Notepad document cannot. Technical support for Windows x64 editions Your hardware manufacturer provides technical support and assistance for Microsoft Windows x64 editions. Your hardware manufacturer provides support because a Windows x64 edition was included with your hardware. Your hardware manufacturer might have customized the Windows x64 edition installation with unique components.

Unique components might include specific device drivers or might include optional settings to maximize the performance of the hardware. Microsoft will provide reasonable-effort assistance if you need technical help with your Windows x64 edition. However, you might have to contact your manufacturer directly. Terms of the preferred stock are described in the issuing company's articles of association or articles of incorporation.

Like bonds, preferred stocks are rated by the major credit rating companies. The rating for preferred stocks is generally lower than for bonds because preferred dividends do not carry the same guarantees as interest payments from bonds and because preferred-stock holders' claims are junior to those of all creditors. Preferred stock is a special class of shares which may have any combination of features not possessed by common stock. The following features are usually associated with preferred stock: In general, preferred stock has preference in dividend payments.

The preference does not assure the payment of dividends, but the company must pay the stated dividends on preferred stock before or at the same time as any dividends on common stock.

Preferred stock can be cumulative or noncumulative. A cumulative preferred requires that if a company fails to pay a dividend or pays less than the stated rate , it must make up for it at a later time in order to ever pay common-stock dividends again. Dividends accumulate with each passed dividend period which may be quarterly, semi-annually or annually.

When a dividend is not paid in time, it has "passed"; all passed dividends on a cumulative stock make up a dividend in arrears. A stock without this feature is known as a noncumulative, or straight , [3] preferred stock; any dividends passed are lost if not declared. The above list which includes several customary rights is not comprehensive; preferred shares like other legal arrangements may specify nearly any right conceivable. Preferred shares in the U. In addition to straight preferred stock, there is diversity in the preferred stock market.

Additional types of preferred stock include:. Preferred stocks offer a company an alternative form of financing—for example through pension-led funding ; in some cases, a company can defer dividends by going into arrears with little penalty or risk to its credit rating, however, such action could have a negative impact on the company meeting the terms of its financing contract.

Occasionally companies use preferred shares as means of preventing hostile takeovers , creating preferred shares with a poison pill or forced-exchange or conversion features which are exercised upon a change in control.

Some corporations contain provisions in their charters authorizing the issuance of preferred stock whose terms and conditions may be determined by the board of directors when issued. These "blank checks" are often used as a takeover defense; they may be assigned very high liquidation value which must be redeemed in the event of a change of control , or may have great super-voting powers.

When a corporation goes bankrupt, there may be enough money to repay holders of preferred issues known as " senior " but not enough money for " junior " issues.

Therefore, when preferred shares are first issued their governing document may contain protective provisions preventing the issuance of new preferred shares with a senior claim. Individual series of preferred shares may have a senior, pari-passu equal , or junior relationship with other series issued by the same corporation. Preferred shares are more common in private or pre-public companies, where it is useful to distinguish between the control of and the economic interest in the company. Government regulations and the rules of stock exchanges may either encourage or discourage the issuance of publicly traded preferred shares.

In many countries, banks are encouraged to issue preferred stock as a source of Tier 1 capital. On the other hand, the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange prohibits listed companies from having more than one class of capital stock. A company may issue several classes of preferred stock.

It may undergo several rounds of financing, with each round receiving separate rights and having a separate class of preferred stock. In the United States there are two types of preferred stocks: Straight preferreds are issued in perpetuity although some are subject to call by the issuer, under certain conditions and pay a stipulated dividend rate to the holder. Convertible preferreds—in addition to the foregoing features of a straight preferred—contain a provision by which the holder may convert the preferred into the common stock of the company or, sometimes, into the common stock of an affiliated company under certain conditions among which may be the specification of a future date when conversion may begin, a certain number of common shares per preferred share or a certain price per share for the common stock.

There are income-tax advantages generally available to corporations investing in preferred stocks in the United States. See Dividends received deduction.

But for individuals , a straight preferred stock, a hybrid between a bond and a stock, bears some disadvantages of each type of securities without enjoying the advantages of either. Like a bond, a straight preferred does not participate in future earnings and dividend growth of the company, or growth in the price of the common stock. However, a bond has greater security than the preferred and has a maturity date at which the principal is to be repaid. Like the common, the preferred has less security protection than the bond.

However, the potential increase in the market price of the common and its dividends, paid from future growth of the company is lacking for the preferred. One advantage of the preferred to its issuer is that the preferred receives better equity credit at rating agencies than straight debt since it is usually perpetual. Also, certain types of preferred stock qualify as Tier 1 capital; this allows financial institutions to satisfy regulatory requirements without diluting common shareholders.

Through preferred stock, financial institutions are able to gain leverage while receiving Tier 1 equity credit. Advantages of straight preferreds may include higher yields and—in the U. Another class of issuer includes split share corporations. Investors in Canadian preferred shares are generally those who wish to hold fixed-income investments in a taxable portfolio. Preferential tax treatment of dividend income as opposed to interest income may, in many cases, result in a greater after-tax return than might be achieved with bonds.

Preferred shares are often used by private corporations to achieve Canadian tax objectives.

The fact that focus cues can affect 3D percepts has significant implications for psychophysical research on depth perception. Thus, transient changes in eye position are taken into account better than sustained changes, and the same may apply to accommodation.

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The computer display is carefully constructed so all the standard depth cues—binocular disparity, texture gradients, occlusion, shading, etc. The fact that focus cues can affect 3D percepts has significant implications for psychophysical research on depth perception.

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