Financial transaction tax

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A financial transaction tax is a levy on a specific type of financial transaction for a particular purpose. The concept has been most commonly associated with the financial sector; it is not usually considered to include consumption taxes paid by consumers.

You can quote the law over and over all you want and there are probably dozens of loopholes but human being to human being, Ben deserves some reward for his reports and you know that. Just like you deserve energy returned to you for what you do. Posting 3 days later is not exactly Naiz - you you fucking can't post at all and I think it's pretty fair.

The first thing to mention in response is "I like getting Bens reports on a monday for free". But the question is WHY do you STILL like to get them for free, and, therefore, would rather not pay even though you obviously find them of some value to you?

Would you also like to get some food from the supermarket for free? You see, this simply indicates your deepermost disrespect for creativity. Even to conceive the idea "I like getting Bens reports How can such an idea of "getting something for free" even arise in the mind of a honest human being that appreciates Life and Creativity when he is getting something of value, which is a fruit of creation of someone else?

As to "but look, he does deserve to earn a living", the answer is simple: How one must feel telling all sorts of things to others while, at the same time, knowing full well that very little of it is verifiable and much, if not most of it, is nothing more than wishful thinking projections, at best? As to "I'm sure he is not getting rich of his reports", the response is simple: Do you have any supporting evidence of your "sure"?

How could you possibly know? You see, the very fact that he can afford to go on some vacation, right in the middle of the battle against the evil, as he claims, means what? And where does he get the money for all his trips to the Vatican, Rome, to see David Rockefeller and all sorts of other "influential" individuals? Just his travel expenses alone might turn out to be more than any "ordinary" human being, "just making a buck", can afford.

And what does "getting rich" have to do with Truth and his alleged efforts to fight evil? As to "You can quote the law over and over all you want and there are probably dozens of loopholes but human being to human being, Ben deserves some reward for his reports and you know that", our response is simple enough: And his very "message" ends precisely with a threat of a legal nature.

It is one thing to be deluded in one's own mind, because one bears the consequences of his own actions. But deluding the people and thus "lead them astray" is something utterly different and the consequences are much more severe for doing so.

Furthermore, his disclaimer note, where he releases himself from any responsibility for the information he provides, changes nothing as far as the consequences go. As to "Just like you deserve energy returned to you for what you do", to tell you the truth, the very word "deserve" does not even appear on our radar screen as far as the results of work we do.

We do not do it just to get some praises or adoration. We are what we are. And we do what we do not because of any kinds of "rewards" that could be measured in material "values" or ego gratification procedures.

But because it simply MUST be done in our opinion, and that does not imply that our opinion is "right". But we DO see the fruits indeed and that means to us that one more human Soul has awakened to Truth and reality of it. We can only say "thank you", oh that Power that had found a way to use the fruits of our labor to awaken one more Soul on this planet. We need no other "rewards". The very Joy and a smile and peace in our Souls is about the highest "reward" we can even imagine.

Furthermore, we have not received a penny for all the work we have done, and have NEVER even asked for a penny.

The very idea is simply not of our concern. We DO receive all the Grace and all the daily necessities, that are of the most simple kind, on the par with a poor man.

But that is ALL we need. And finally, as to "Then again you play it the way you want to but remember one thing - don't lie to yourself -", yes, this is EXACTLY true, and that is one of the most significant things in this entire chapter.

If you don't mind, let us tell you what it means to US. It means that deep inside of you you know and see things in a particular way, which constitute your deepermost understanding and beliefs.

But on the surface, when you relate to others, you are saying things that are different from what you yourself believe in the depths of your being. Now, as far as WE are concerned, what do you know and can possibly know about our deepermost "secrets" and beliefs and opinions? And, in order to accuse us of lying to ourselves, you at least need to state what ARE those lies or the moments where you think what we say is not what we deeply understand?

Let me repeat one more time: Who knows, may be one day, you might discover that the left part of your mouth is not saying the same thing as the right part, not even mentioning that, which lays deep within you, and that is quite a discovery.

Walk with this idea morning to night. Who knows what might happen. Well, one thing is certain, Benya seems to be really interested to get our attention with his guilt projection and fear instillation tricks. After we have been contacted by one individual and looked at Benya's threats, the initial feeling was of utter disgust, to the point that one has an urge to vomit, so sick and perverted the whole thing seemed to us at the time.

Why should we even argue about the authors? We either carry them or we don't. We have never argued with any author, at least about the issues of publication. This, by itself, looks like something on the par with insane. One of this author's friends told him once: They get what they deserve". Well, certainly, he has a point, and a big one at that. Basically, I do it because I simply can not do otherwise, and it isn't even some moral or ethical consideration.

For one thing, despite all the idiocy I have seen, I simply do not believe that people are as dumb as they pretend to be. Basically, the problem of blindness is not a result of some inherent inability of people to SEE. It is their deep fear that if they even look at something honestly and sincerely, then, somehow, the entire structure of their belief system of myths of all kinds will simply collapse.

On the other hand, even if a few people will be able to see as a result of what we do, then it is worth to us more than can be imagined by many. Because every single individual whose eyes open becomes like a spark that can fire up many things.

The other pretty ugly part of his threats and all the negative energy projected by the "bleeding hearts" and other members of his "elite club" of "the chosen few", who have the financial and technical abilities to pay for his reports, is that he begins to dictate some "rules" to nothing less than Creativity and Truth, and that is not such a good idea, and it has some consequences, some of which Benya can not even begin to comprehend it seems.

At the roots of it lay a pretty ordinary megalomania and narcissism. Usually, it is tightly coupled with what is known as degeneracy in medical terms. Degeneracy, is tightly coupled with psychiatric disorders, when one somehow "looses it" and begins to confuse the real and unreal and takes purely imagined and at times quite "twisted" or "stretched" and distorted versions as something ultimately real.

Degeneracy, in turn, begins with sexual perversions, which Gregory Klimov calls "the first bell of nature", just as Benya himself had reported having the "unusual sex" with one lady. The roots of sexual perversions lay in dullness and denial, thus, insatiable desire for more and more sex.

Eventually, it becomes dull and one no longer experiences the orgasmic culmination during the plain ordinary intercourse. So, "naturally", they begin to stretch the limits of what is sex. Thus, sex becomes perverted. Initially, it could be the same sex partners, and then, as it "grows", it becomes sadism and eventually sadomasochism, and masochism is the worst and most vicious form of sadism.

If one does not pay attention to this sickness, then "the second bell of nature" comes in form of mental diseases, and if one keeps denying this sickness and keeps pushing it further, then "the third and final bell of nature" comes in form of birth defects.

Birth defects mean that the Nature simply terminates this particular branch on the tree and this bloodline. From then on, this branch simply withers away and can no longer produce any fruits. Very few degenerates on the third level have either desire or are capable of producing the offspring.

This is how Gregory Klimov, one of the world's foremost experts on degeneracy and Higher Sociology, presents the entire process and the roots of it. But this has to be studied and the results will be simply shocking to most. You can review an interview with Gregory Klimov that outlines the most essential things as far as degeneracy and "the power complex" go.

It is not an exhaustive coverage of all the issues involved, but, nevertheless, it might shock your minds if you even begin to comprehend the significance of it and the impact they have on everyone on this planet. Three stages of degeneracy Degenerates Rule The World! Interview with Gregory Klimov about "the power complex" and stages, symptoms and expressions of degeneracy.

Unfortunately, Gregory Klimov is one of the most taboo authors you can find. Out of his 7 books only one has been translated into English. The utterly secret field of Higher Sociology discloses the very roots and mechanisms of that which Benya attempts to deal with. In particular, the concept of "the power complex" or insatiable desire to "rule" others and impose ones own will upon them is covered in the most profound detail.

So, all these "demons" Benya is trying to "fight", at least as he presents it, and their very motivations can be understood only if you are aware of the deepermost details and the very core of their twisted belief system. Benya, with all due respect for his work, and some of it is quite insightful, does not seem to have the real grasp on the underlying issues, nor he has those necessary keys that "open the doors" to this most profound riddle in the entire history of this planet.

Yes, he does know some things and has some intuitive grasp of it, and probably more than many others, but still he looks like one of those "blind ones", groping in the darkness of evil without having the sufficiently solid base to stand upon, and it's been said: And, to our opinion, Benya's "house" is precisely built on sand. Yes, he waves his hands a lot and shouts all sorts of slogans and makes all sorts of proclamations and even "prophecies" of sorts.

But most of it is nothing more than "a tale, told by an idiot, full of fury, signifying nothing". In order to "fight the evil" you need to SEE it, to SEE its very roots and foundation, to see and understand its "operating principles" and the entire system of belief, and, probably most importantly, to see that hand, which rules it all in this grand puppet theater. That is the difference between the "heaven" and the "hell".

Else, one is simply doomed in face of the most powerful forces in the entire history of mankind. Yes, one can see some puppets indeed. But unless one can see the puppet master and understand his very roots and underlying ideology and its "goals", one has virtually no chance to "win" this battle. Now, these are the very roots of what is known as evil.

Eventually, these people get so confused that they begin to imagine that they can set some "rules" to anything they want. Because, deep inside, they are the followers of what is known as "negative approach to development of Intelligence". The essence of the "negative approach" is self-serving and totally ignoring the needs and interests of others. And that is precisely why one "looses it" in the most profound terms and even begins to set some "rules" to anything he pleases, not even realizing that some things are simply beyond his control, regardless of what he thinks or does.

And the indication of the fact that they did indeed "loose it" is the fact that they begin to set some rules even to some of the highest principles of the Infinite Multidimensional Intelligence, such as Creativity, going to the point of delusion where they even begin to set some "rules" to nothing else that Truth and place some conditions on it.

At that point, it becomes basically "a mental department level", meaning they have lost the most fundamental guideposts on their way.

One needs to open up a bit and realize ones own relative significance "in the scheme of things", and that is development of Intelligence, and place oneself into a proper perspective, simply by realizing that one is NOT "the greatest thing or entity ever known to mankind". In could be just the other way around in at least some aspects.

And that is precisely why it was said: All that you think is great treasures you have in your hands, that you have managed to grab, is dust and nothing but the dust. First of all, we have no interest in being the only ones that make his reports available to the whole world without any artificial delays or strings attached, even though we disagree, and for fundamental reasons, with the idea of not providing the information openly and unconditionally.

We are not quite interested to play the role of Jesus Christ in the game of "saving the world". That is not the role we chose to play. It is our opinion that Humanity can not be "saved" by some "noble knights on the white horse".

Humanity needs "saving" itself, or, more precisely, to drastically increase the degree of awareness of every individual, and that happens purely on individual level, upon ones own individual initiative, desire and interest to do so. It can not be imposed from the outside, even though plenty of assistance is available upon "calling", which is already happening as we speak. It won't work, it never worked and it can not possibly work.

Because if one refuses to SEE, just as been said in the New Testament, for example, then he will remain blind and will not learn anything he is not interested in learning. Learning and "SEEING" is a result of internal desire to do so in order to progress or refine the level of ones own consciousness and come to the point where one can "SEE", at least the most essential things.

Secondly, in all the years we have been operating our sites, not a single author had ever placed ANY conditions regarding his work, as to how and why and in which form we chose to publish it.

We publish things in a particular visual format to facilitate the clarity and simplicity of perception and to allow one to process and digest massive amounts of information. No fancy pictures, no bells and whistles, to make sure there are no hindrances and distractions of any kind. And, nevertheless, if anything, we have seen quite some compliments by some of the REAL researchers and of the world caliber that indicate to us that they do find this work of value, to the point that some of them even begin to promote it, and not necessarily for the purposeful promotion.

Thirdly, fortunately or unfortunately, there is quite a few pretty subtle and yet far reaching things said in his reports and for the purposes yet to be determined, that might have a pretty significant impact in terms of distortions of all kinds.

Now, there are many people who still did not study these subjects of evil to the extent that is necessary for them to SEE the whole picture. And, knowingly or unknowingly, whatever Benya says may have quite some consequences as far as their understanding, distortions of all kinds, and further probable actions go. So, if there is ANY chance that we might help to unscramble, comprehend or even understand some of those quite subtle things, that might not be noticed by those, who did not do enough study of it, then that is what we will try to do.

Whether we are "right" or "wrong" or our interpretations are "correct", let the people decide for themselves. But at least they have a chance to look at it all from a different perspective, and we do not usually comment on those things, where we do not have a sufficient or necessary competence or a certain degree of seeing the essence of it.

At least some of it, and quite conceivably, might be done without him even being aware of it and the consequences that it might have. We chose not to comment previously on all those questionable things that we found in his reports, some of which could be considered the deliberate perversions, at least if done with "bad intent". Whether it is so, "time will tell", and it will, definitely so.

But, in light of this all, we started considering our options as to how to handle Benya's reports and his demands, and there are few of those options available indeed. And the "problem" we have is that these reports need to be addressed simply because he has too wide of a following and too much of an impact, at least on the minds of not very competent people, who did not study the issues deep enough to even begin to comprehend what we are dealing with here. Unfortunately, most of the options we have involve some additional work on our part and treatment of his information differently from how we treat and handle all other information on our sites, and that might cost something not only to us, but to him as well.

So, the fist option we have, is to say: OK, dear Benya, we will honor your quite unusual request to delay the publication of information.

Yes, we do not like the very idea of a "special treatment" to any information or authors on our sites. Our hands are full as is. We do not need any additional load and extra work to be done just because of some Benya with questionable reputation and all sorts of unverifiable information he constantly publishes.

This implies that instead of publishing his reports as soon as we have a chance to see them, we will honor his request and, instead of publishing his reports in full, which, among other things, is necessary for historical reference purposes, we might instead publish the digests of his reports and delay the publication of full versions for three days as he requested. And we warn Benya that this is probably the worst thing he could even imagine for himself. Simply because we may attempt to expose "the real meaning" and some of those nasty hidden aspects, as we perceive it, of what he says and let everyone have a look at even those things that we have chosen not to comment on previously for various reasons.

Yes, "expose the real meaning" does not mean some "revelations" of absolute and undeniable essence of it, but simply means in OUR opinion. We make no big claims as to the guarantees of validity of what and how we see things.

To different people, the "real meaning" might be quite different, but that is "the nature of things". Fundamentally, the "hidden meaning" is available only on the highest levels of Intelligence, even though some things are available to anyone upon sincere asking and honest intent, or what is known as "calling". In our understanding, the sincere "calling" may be answered by the higher levels, but only if it does not interfere with the individual's own free will and free choice.

Simply telling you some "answer", without your own sincere investigation and desire to know, is not likely to change the degree of your awareness, knowing or, rather, SEEING. Yes, it is quite a bit of additional work that we might have to do with this approach, and this is not exactly the kind of work we would otherwise chose to do, being as busy as we are with what we already have on our hands.

But what to do, especially in the situation where you might be left as one of the very few in the entire world who has guts to publish his reports as soon as they come out and facing the consequences of "explaining yourself"? One more aspect of Benya's reports is the fact that they might be of interest to some REAL information warfare fighters, or "the messengers of Truth" as they are known to some.

Now, one of the principles of the information warfare, especially when you fight no one less but evil all-pervading, is that you can not dictate ANYTHING to those, who have chosen to fight. Because they are fighting, or, more precisely, STAND for, nothing less than Truth and they are responsible to only the highest levels of Intelligence and Life force as such.

And, at least some of them, fully realize that they stake nothing less than their own Lives in this standoff with the evil most profound. So, there is no one in this world who can dictate anything to them. They are willing to pay whatever price there is, even if they make some "mistakes" that are inevitable in pretty much anything anyone does or thinks. And their fight is not meant to cause some chaos and violence of all kinds. Yes, no one can force SEEING on anyone else, and even if they try to, it will most likely be violence against the will of those, who are "blind" at the moment.

Because the real reasons they are "blind" is because they are not READY to see anything beyond what they already know, or, more precisely, programmed with. Krishnamurti during one of his interviews has told a reporter asking him all sorts of utterly meaningless and even foolish things:. And that is quite an insight. Just observe yourselves and see the REAL reasons for you to ask something of someone.

Are you asking because you are really interested to know something that is different from what you already know? Or just to support that, which you already know? Because knowledge of something genuinely new for you is that, which endangers your "same old, same old". In new, you have no guarantee that your "same old" will remain safe and your ego and "self-image" are not challenged.

So, this war is not a war of violence and destruction or some grandiose images of ego gratification. One thing we know with certainty is that PLENTY of people would prefer to get Benya's reports "as soon as they come out of the oven", without any strings attached and without being identified.

So, why is he trying to twist their arms and submit to his "rules"? Is he some kind of a king or emperor to create ANY kind of "rules" to nothing less than Truth itself? It is at least conceivable that the reason why Benya so insists on people registering with him in order to have unhindered and immediate access to information has NOTHING to do with money.

But it might be done simply for the purposes of identification of "undesirables". Some people already know that there exists 3 lists in the NWO scheme. The "red list" is the list of either "dissidents" or otherwise "undesirables" or "potential troublemakers". Those, who get on the "red list" are to be exterminated first.

There are over FEMA concentration camps already built in the USA alone and there are hundreds of thousands of caskets already manufactured to store at least 3 bodies in each one. At the point of "trigger event", those people are to be immediately arrested, without any court decisions, and are to be transported into the concentration camps with efficient gas and body burning chambers and so on. At this junction, this "trigger event" may happen ANY moment. ALL the necessary executive directives to bypass the law and the constitution have already been signed by the presidents Bush and Obama, just as described, for example, by Alex Jones and few others.

How many of you are aware of the "Project Endgame", secretly signed by Obama a few years ago? Here is a little quote on that:. Now, how much certainty can you possibly have that this very Benya is not going to provide the ID information about you if he is either bribed or threatened? All this means is that about the worst idea the real worrier might imagine is to register and thus expose the exact information about himself to anyone.

Most of the information worriers even know that participating in any kind of "social media" schemes is the easiest and surest way to get on the "red list", not even mentioning the fact that their entire brain contents becomes totally open to the powers of evil that control and own all these so-called "social media" outlets.

One must be a hopeless fool to doubt that these outlets will provide ANY and FULL information on them, including every single post they have made or read and every single email they have ever sent of received, which means what in your opinion?

There is also a substantial class of worriers who simply can not obtain any reports on the paying basis, even if they wanted to, and for numerous reasons. It is our opinion that no person, regardless of where he lives on this planet, how much income or equipment does he have, should be deprived of ANY information about the evil or anything else for that matter and without any delays regardless of anything.

Even if Benya's reports are largely fakes and fabrications of wishful thinking, at best, one still should have the ability to access them unconditionally. For example, some people are willing and have the abilities to provide any additional information even if it is not available on the sites.

At this junction there exists a mechanism of getting the extended version of the site and the entire collection of information via BTSync program. This means that if someone is interested in Benya's information, but is not able or willing to either pay or be identified, then install the BTSync program and create a folder for extended real-time collection.

See further instruction here:. Download and automatically update the extended version of http: In light of Benya's legal threats regarding the release of his information without delays and no string attached, let us look at what is he charging money for in his alleged "fight to save the world". Who knows, some people might even start asking the questions of a kind: Am I just a fool, ready to swallow "hook, line and sinker" anything that some "authority" throws me?

Netanyahu and other senior nazionists to be arrested soon. Mind you, that was said more than a year ago, on July 21, Furthermore, the "sources" are nothing less than Mossad. And if Mossad does not know what is going on "under the hood" then who would know better? Have any of you heard even of traces of Netanyahu and other ZioNazis being arrested or even condemned even after a year since these "revelations"?

So, how many years and generations will it take before these "prophecies" are going to materialize in reality? For this reason, the possibility is growing that Abe will be arrested on terror charges when he goes to Davos, Switzerland for the Cabal meeting starting there on January 21, the sources in Chinese, British, Japanese and American intelligence agencies say.

Was he in fact arrested and have you heard even any mentioning of his arrest anywhere? Just imagine the following scenario if you wish. You simply call Benya and tell him that you are an agent of such and such intelligence agency and you have the information he might be interested in. The thing is, there is no way for Benya to know if you are real or not.

Because it is clear to both of you that you can not identify yourself or disclose your code name. So, it is foolish for him to even ask you to identify yourself, even if he uses some secondary means. Then you tell Benya anything you wish or find something really noteworthy published somewhere and you tell Benya that YOU are the actual "source". Now, what do you expect to happen as a result if not Benya publishing your utter disinformation garbage claiming "according to our 'source' in such and such intelligence agency, we can tell you this: And what are the readers to do but to swallow it "hook, line and sinker" and fall on their sorry "rear end" and say "wow, look at this one".

Moreover, some of them, including his quite extensive "support group" will be foolish enough to even begin thanking him and praising him for such "deep insights", like some Prophet. And ALL of it means what in reality? Or ask yourself the question "did Benya actually try to VERIFY any of it before he actually published all these concoctions", just as any half decent reporter is expected to do in a similar situation, at least if he is not much excited by the idea of loosing his reputation of being a reputable reporter?

It is much easier for a reporter to loose his reputation than to gain it and once he is caught lying, that's the end of him. He may as well "go get a job at some fast food outlet" because no one in his clear mind will ever believe a word of his from then on. There is another question here: Isn't this not even laughable, but simply pathetic? How can possibly anyone in his clear mind classify all this grand bluff as anything but disinformation "to lead the herd by their noses to the pit"?

Allegedly, these "intelligence agencies" have even provided the EVIDENCE, and both, Benya and great so called WDS seem to have simply swallowed it all, "hook, line and sinker", without even trying to verify any of it before they open their mouth in public via their mouthpiece Benya with all these grandiose claims?

In that case, there is question to be asked: If nothing happens even in case where some evidence exists, then what does it all mean? Alternatively, what kind of "evidence" they have and what does it mean the "evidence" in principle?

Is it merely a balloon that you can blow up to the size of a jumbo jet? It seems that if any evidence to such horrific crimes does actually exist, then a court simply MUST arrest the criminals and of such a grand magnitude. All that is needed is to file a court complaint and provide that evidence. Are we missing something here? Yes, understood, the legal issues get complicated in a hurry and we can not possibly know what any court will actually decide to do, especially if that court is corrupt.

For example, Benya talks, for years on, about some "negotiations of surrender" with ZioNazi satanists. It seems that in that case the only thing of concern to them is to negotiate a better "deal" for them in light of their certain failure. But what we see in the world instead is pumping up the violence, including the ZioNazi "revolution" in Ukraine to establish the "New Khazaria" on their "ancestral" lands that historically and undeniably belong and are the motherland of Russians and other native people.

And what we do actually see instead is TOTAL support of even the utmost lies and perversions of satanic grade? So, what does it tell you? Doesn't it imply that the very idea of ANY "surrender" is about the last thing in their minds? In fact, it is highly doubtful that such an idea as surrender can even arise in their minds, filled with evil to the brim, and historical events show it in no uncertain terms. What we can also see is that the so-called governments throughout the world keep passing new and new "laws" to totally shut the mouths of anyone who opposes their servitude to the satanic system of evil.

And we can see more and more violence throughout the world and even the attempts to continue the ancient ZioNazi plans to wipe out the white race from the face of this planet. For example, massive influx of migrants to Europe, which Benya interprets as an attempt to unite Christianity and Islam, which is simply an absurd, may in fact turn out to be a totally different scheme, and that is to destroy the white race via massive influx of colored people, which, eventually and inevitably, will cause of intermixing their blood pools and, therefore, will destroy the purity of their races.

It is well known, even from the "scriptures", that the white race, and especially the Slavs, and even more so, the Christians, not even mentioning Jesus, are the worst "enemies" of ZioNazi satanists. And there is plenty of evidence of it and specific quotes by the highest level "authorities", religious or otherwise.

It is even described in several speeches of the ZioNazi moshiach false "messiah" of "Chabad mafia", Menachem Mendel Schneerson, and other rabbis of world fame. They are defiant because of the composition of their mental and psychic abilities inherent in many generations of ancestral genes that are not subject to reconstruction.

That is why this seed is subject to liquidation, and, first of all, a sharp reduction in their numbers. Ab Oktober versuchte er, die Situation der Arbeitslosen und ihrer Familien durch Gründung privater Hilfsorganisationen zu lindern. Den Organisationen gelang es zwar, die Summe der Privatspenden zu erhöhen, als Mittel zur Linderung der Not waren diese Summen jedoch bei weitem nicht ausreichend.

Nachdem sich die Krise in ihrem dritten Jahr erheblich verschärft hatte, wechselte Hoover die Strategie und eröffnete eine Phase des Experimentierens, um nach möglichen Lösungen zu suchen. Dieses stelle sich am sichersten wieder ein, wenn der Staat wieder einen ausgeglichenen Haushalt vorweisen könne.

Damit wollte Hoover sicherstellen, dass der Staat keine Kredite mehr aufnehmen musste und somit auch nicht mehr mit Privaten konkurrierte, die verzweifelt um Kredite nachsuchten. Unter Wahrung der Doktrin staatlicher Nichteinmischung in die Wirtschaft versuchte er, die Unternehmen zu privaten Initiativen gegen die Rezession zu bewegen Voluntarismus. Solche Initiativen, wie zum Beispiel die National Credit Association , mit der starke Banken schwache stützen sollten, scheiterten jedoch.

Wagner zur Einführung einer öffentlichen Arbeitslosenversicherung verhinderte er, indem er als Präsident ein Veto einlegte.

Widerstrebend unterzeichnete er ein vom Kongress als Kompromiss verabschiedetes Gesetz, das Arbeitsbeschaffungsprogramme mit einem Volumen von 1,5 Milliarden Dollar schuf. Das Geld wurde unter anderem für die Errichtung des Hoover Dam eingesetzt. Roosevelts politisches Programm blieb im Wahlkampf unscharf und unklar, seine generelle Haltung war jedoch allgemein bekannt.

Wie sein Cousin Theodore Roosevelt , der von bis Präsident der Vereinigten Staaten gewesen war, war auch er ein Progressiver. Seiner Ansicht nach sollte der Staat überall da eingreifen, wo es im öffentlichen Interesse notwendig war.

I pledge myself to a new deal for the American people. This is more than a political campaign. It is a call to arms.

Ich verpflichte mich zu einer Neuverteilung der Karten für das amerikanische Volk. Das ist mehr als eine politische Kampagne. Das ist ein Ruf zu den Waffen. Wie Hoover wollte er das Ziel eines ausgeglichenen Haushalts nicht aufgeben. Er sprach sich dafür aus, die Steuern deutlich zu erhöhen, damit das Existenzminimum eines jeden Bürgers gesichert werden könne. Im Wahlkampf stellte Roosevelt erstmals seinen Brain Trust vor. Es handelte sich um eine offene Gruppe von Wirtschafts- und Rechtsexperten, die Roosevelt beraten sollten.

Diese Berater waren sich nicht in allen Fragen einig, es bestand aber Konsens in der grundsätzlichen Richtung der politischen Empfehlungen. Erstens gingen sie davon aus, dass sowohl die Gründe für die Depression als auch die Mittel dagegen in den Vereinigten Staaten selbst zu finden waren. Diese Analyse beeinflusste auch einige Reden Roosevelts. Insbesondere Berle und Tugwell hatten sich intensiv mit Wettbewerbsrecht und insbesondere Kartellrecht befasst.

Februar bat Roosevelt die engagierte Sozialpolitikerin Frances Perkins , das Arbeitsministerium zu übernehmen. Sie stimmte unter der Bedingung zu, dass sie sich für ein Verbot von Kinderarbeit , die Schaffung einer Rentenversicherung und die Einführung von Mindestlöhnen einsetzen durfte. Roosevelt willigte ein, betonte jedoch, dass sie nicht sehr viel Hilfe von ihm erwarten könne. Sie wurde der erste weibliche Minister der Vereinigten Staaten und gehörte zu den wenigen Ministern, die über drei Legislaturperioden im Amt waren.

Wagner gelang ihr gegen erhebliche Widerstände die Grundsteinlegung des amerikanischen Sozialstaates. Nach dem Gewinn der Präsidentschaftswahl von trat Roosevelt am 4. März das Amt an. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt fürchteten die Bürger, dass alle Versuche, die Krise zu überwinden, an dem politischen System der Vereinigten Staaten scheitern könnten, in dem jede Initiative aufgrund der amerikanischen Ausprägung der Checks and Balances sehr stark von Kooperation abhängig ist.

In einer ersten Sondersitzungsperiode des März bis zum Aufgrund der allgemeinen Sehnsucht nach einem Ende der Krise konnte Roosevelt das Tage-Programm in einem beispiellosen Klima der überparteilichen Zustimmung abarbeiten. In the hundred days from March to June we became again an organized nation confident of our power to provide for our own security and to control our own destiny. In den Tagen von März bis Juni wurden wir wieder eine organisierte Nation mit der Zuversicht, aus eigener Kraft für unsere eigene Sicherheit zu sorgen und unser eigenes Schicksal zu kontrollieren.

Bank Runs entstanden, weil bekannt wurde, dass viele Banken faule Kredite angehäuft bzw. Aus Angst um ihr Vermögen versuchten daraufhin viele Bankkunden, sofort all ihre Bankeinlagen abzuheben, was zu Zahlungsunfähigkeit und Bankrott der Bank führte, weil sie längerfristig angelegtes Geld nicht sofort verfügbar machen konnte.

Bank Runs entstanden oft auf Basis von Gerüchten, so dass auch relativ gesunde Banken Opfer einer solchen Entwicklung werden konnten. Dadurch, dass immer mehr Bürger ihr Geld vorsorglich zuhause horteten, stand den Banken insgesamt auch immer weniger Geld zur Verfügung.

Hieraus entwickelte sich eine Kreditknappheit , welche die Vergabe bzw. Verlängerung von Privat- und Firmenkrediten vielfach unmöglich machte. Roosevelt hingegen hielt über das Radio verbreitet eine Ansprache, die in der Atmosphäre eines Kamingesprächs gehalten war, und erklärte der Bevölkerung in einfachen Worten die Ursachen der Bankenkrise, was die Regierung dagegen tun werde und wie die Bevölkerung helfen könne. Unmittelbar nach Wiedereröffnung der Banken erhöhte sich der Einlagenbestand um eine Milliarde Dollar.

Als weitere Gründe für die Bankenkrise sah der Gesetzgeber neben den Bank Runs das hohe Engagement vieler Banken in volatilen Wertpapiergeschäften, die mit dem plötzlichen Wertverfall im Zuge des Börsencrashs von existenzbedrohende Verluste verursacht hatten. Es wurde vermutet, dass die hohe Risikobereitschaft vieler Banken auch darin begründet war, dass diese Wertpapiere niedriger Qualität, insbesondere Kreditverschreibungen mit hohem Ausfallrisiko, an weniger gut informierte Bankkunden verkaufen konnten.

Dem vermuteten bankinternen Interessenskonflikt, einerseits die Kunden gut zu beraten und andererseits mit eigenen Wertpapiergeschäften möglichst hohe Gewinne zu erzielen, wollte der Gesetzgeber einen Riegel vorschieben. Mit diesem Gesetz wurde das Trennbankensystem eingeführt. Geschäftsbanken wurden riskante Wertpapiergeschäfte verboten. Das für die Realwirtschaft bedeutsame Kredit- und Einlagengeschäft der Geschäftsbanken sollte so von risikoträchtigen Wertpapiergeschäften getrennt werden, die zukünftig spezialisierten Investmentbanken vorbehalten blieben.

Dieser Einlagensicherungsfonds garantierte den Bankkunden eine Auszahlung der Bankeinlagen im Falle eines eventuellen Bankrotts einer Geschäftsbank. Investmentbanken waren hingegen von dieser staatlichen Garantie ausgeschlossen.

In der Folgezeit kam es zu keinen weiteren Bank Runs mehr. Während selbst in der Zeit vor der Weltwirtschaftskrise mehr als fünfhundert Banken pro Jahr zusammenbrachen, [52] waren es nach weniger als zehn pro Jahr. Vor wurden an der Wall Street Wertpapiere gehandelt, über die keine zuverlässigen Informationen verfügbar waren.

Mit diesem Gesetz wurden Wertpapier-Emittenten verpflichtet, realistische Informationen über ihre Wertpapiere herauszugeben. Aufgrund des damals bestehenden Goldstandards , also der Bindung des Dollar an den Goldpreis, musste die amerikanische Notenbank FED so viel Gold horten, dass jeder Bürger jederzeit seine Dollars in eine äquivalente Goldmenge tauschen konnte.

Die FED hätte in den Jahren der Rezession — eine expansive Geldpolitik verfolgen müssen, um die Deflation zu bekämpfen und das Bankensystem zu stabilisieren. Aufgrund des Goldautomatismus war eine antizyklische Geldpolitik aber nicht möglich, denn eine Senkung des Leitzinses hätte zu einem relativen Rückgang der Goldreserven geführt. Die FED hatte nur die Wahl, entweder der Deflation und der Bankenkrise freien Lauf zu lassen oder den Goldstandard zugunsten einer expansiven Geldpolitik aufzugeben, und entschied sich für ersteres.

Dieser Zusammenhang war in den er Jahren allerdings noch unzureichend bekannt, erste Kritik an den Auswirkungen des Goldstandards kamen seinerzeit von Wirtschaftswissenschaftlern wie John Maynard Keynes. Die Idee, die Unternehmer auf freiwilliger Basis zu dem Verzicht auf unfaire Preisunterbietungen und die Entlassung von Arbeitnehmern zu verpflichten, stammte ursprünglich von Präsident Hoover. Dieser wollte auf die Art die Deflation bekämpfen.

Diese Idee wurde von Roosevelt aufgegriffen, sollte aber erheblich konsequenter umgesetzt werden. Geführt wurde sie von Hugh S. Die NRA erarbeitete in Zusammenarbeit mit Wirtschaftsvertretern einen Verhaltenskatalog, auf den sich Unternehmer freiwillig verpflichten konnten. Dazu gehörten der Verzicht auf unfairen Preis- Wettbewerb, Mindestpreise, Mindestlöhne, die Anerkennung von Gewerkschaften, [60] die Einführung der Stundenwoche etc.

Dies sollte die Unternehmen in die Lage versetzen, wieder Arbeitnehmer einzustellen. Allerdings war die Selbstverpflichtung faktisch nicht ganz freiwillig. Unternehmen, die mit diesem Symbol nicht werben konnten, gerieten in die Gefahr, von Kunden boykottiert zu werden. Herbert Hoover hatte die Bildung von Genossenschaften zur Reduzierung der Investitionskosten und der laufenden Kosten angeregt, wieder andere hatten den staatlichen Ankauf und die Vernichtung von Lebensmitteln vorgeschlagen.

Es wurden Beihilfen für Landwirte beschlossen, die ihre Produktion verringerten. Dadurch sollten die Preise für landwirtschaftliche Produkte stabilisiert werden. Auch weil das Gesetz bei der ländlichen Bevölkerung sehr populär war, wurde der AAA hinsichtlich der Einwände des Obersten Gerichtshofs reformiert und neu verabschiedet. Er besteht im Wesentlichen noch heute. Die gegründete Farm Credit Administration organisierte die Umschuldung in längerfristige zinsgünstige Kredite.

Entsprechend der Haltung der meisten US-Bürger war auch die Roosevelt-Regierung der Ansicht, dass es für die Arbeitsmoral besser sei, Arbeitslosenunterstützung durch bezahlte Arbeit zu leisten. In Bezug auf die vom progressiven Flügel der Demokraten geforderten öffentlichen Bauvorhaben public works gab sich Roosevelt reserviert, weil diese bei ungeeigneten Projekten schnell zu einer relativ teuren Form der Armenfürsorge werden konnten.

Mit dem fertiggestellten Wilson-Staudamm gab es ein frühes, von Progressiven initiiertes öffentliches Bauprojekt, dessen Nutzung zur Stromerzeugung mit Hilfe der Präsidenten Calvin Coolidge und Hoover aus ideologischen Gründen bisher erfolgreich sabotiert worden war.

Mit diesen Staudämmen sollten zukünftig Überschwemmungen verhindert, die Malaria ausgerottet und die bis dahin unterentwickelte Region mit Elektrizität versorgt werden. In der Wohnungspolitik bestand grundsätzlich die Wahl zwischen öffentlichem Wohnungsbau und der Förderung des Eigenheimbaus. Anders als in den meisten europäischen Staaten setzte Roosevelt den Schwerpunkt auf die Eigenheimförderung.

Vor bestand die Situation, dass Banken Eigenheimkredite nur mit einer kurzen Laufzeit von 5—10 Jahren vergaben. Diese Politik wurde teilweise dafür kritisiert, dass das untere Drittel der Bevölkerungsschicht von der Eigenheimförderung nicht profitieren konnte.

Bush , Bill Clinton und George W. Since each transaction mediated by currency can not be directly taxed, the APT tax proposes a brokerage fee on currency deposits and withdrawals that is some multiple of the flat transaction tax rate applied to all payments made via electronic payments mechanisms. In the economist James Tobin proposed a tax on all spot conversions of one currency into another.

The so-called Tobin tax is intended to put a penalty on short-term financial round-trip excursions into another currency. Tobin suggested his currency transaction tax in in his Janeway Lectures at Princeton, shortly after the Bretton Woods system effectively ended. If this money is suddenly withdrawn, countries have to drastically increase interest rates for their currency to still be attractive.

But high interest is often disastrous for a national economy, as the nineties' crises in Mexico, South East Asia and Russia have proven It is intended to put a penalty on short-term financial round-trip excursions into another currency. Survey and Options , concluding " First, it is virtually impossible to distinguish between normal liquidity trading and speculative noise trading.

If the tax is generally applied at high rates, it will severely impair financial operations and create international liquidity problems, especially if derivatives are taxed as well.

It has a two-tier rate structure consisting of a low rate financial transactions tax and an exchange surcharge at prohibitive rates. On 19 September , retired speculator George Soros put forward a proposal, issuing special drawing rights SDR that the rich countries would pledge for the purpose of providing international assistance and the alleviation of poverty and other approved objectives.

According to Soros this could make a substantial amount of money available almost immediately. This is slightly less than 0. All it needs is the approval of the United States Congress.

If the scheme is successfully tested, it could be followed by an annual issue of SDRs and the amounts could be scaled up "so that they could have a meaningful impact on many of our most pressing social issues". Between and Australia charged a bank account debits tax on customer withdrawals from bank accounts with a cheque facility. Some Latin American countries also experimented with taxes levied on bank transactions.

Argentina introduced a bank transaction tax in before it was abolished in Brazil implemented its temporary "CPMF" in , which lasted until It often applies to deposits and withdrawals from bank accounts, often including checking accounts. In , Edgar L.

Feige proposed a synthesis and extension of the ideas of Keynes and Tobin by proposing a flat rate tax on all transactions. Since financial transactions in stocks, bonds, international currency transactions and derivatives comprise most of the automated payment transaction APT tax base, it is in essence the broadest of financial transaction taxes.

Initially proposed as a revenue neutral replacement for the entire Federal tax system of the United States, [43] it could alternatively be considered as a global tax whose revenues could be used by national governments to reduce existing income, corporate and VAT tax rates as well as reducing existing sovereign debt burdens. If adopted by all of the developed nations, it would have the advantage of eliminating all incentives for substitution between financial assets and between financial centers since all transactions would universally be taxed at the identical flat tax rate.

The foundations of the APT tax proposal—a small, uniform tax on all economic transactions—involve simplification, base broadening, reductions in marginal tax rates, the elimination of tax and information returns and the automatic collection of tax revenues at the payment source.

The Belgium securities tax applies to certain transactions concluded or executed in Belgium through a professional intermediary, to the extent that they relate to public funds, irrespective of their Belgian or foreign origin. The "tax on stock exchange transactions" is not due upon subscription of new securities primary market transactions. Both buyers and sellers are subject to the tax.

The tax rate varies in accordance with the type of transactions. Transactions made for its own account by non-resident taxpayers and by some financial institutions, such as banks, insurance companies, organizations for financing pensions OFPs or collective investment are exempted from the tax. In Colombia introduced a financial transaction tax of 0. Currently the rate is 0. Finland imposes a tax of 1. However, there are several exceptions.

For example, British banks opposed the tax. It's unforgivable in this age of austerity that the UK government is turning down billions in additional revenue to protect the City's elite. Two other taxes applicable to financial transactions were also introduced, including a tax on high-frequency trading , Article ter ZD bis of the FTC ; and a tax on naked sovereign credit default swaps Article ter ZD ter of the FTC.

The FTT levies a 0. The scheme does not include debt securities, except convertible and exchangeable bonds, which are included but benefit from a dedicated exemption to the FTT. Listed shares acquired as of 1 January will no longer be subject to the sales tax; rather, any capital gains received will be added to the taxpayer's total income. Since 1 October , India levies financial transaction taxes of up to 0. The securities transaction tax STT is not applicable on off-market transactions.

The tax rate is set at 0. The tax has been criticized by the Indian financial sector and is currently under review. Since 1 March , Italy levies financial transaction tax on qualified equity transactions of up to 0. Until , Japan imposed a transaction tax on a variety of financial instruments, including debt instruments and equity instruments, but at differential rates.

The tax rates were higher on equities than on debentures and bonds. The tax was eventually withdrawn as part of "big bang" liberalization of the financial sector in In the Peruvian government introduced a 0. The tax is to be assessed automatically but collected manually. The tax applies to transactions, which are performed in Poland or which grant property rights that are to be exercised in Poland. It also applies to transactions executed outside Poland if the buyer is established in Poland.

All transactions on a stock market, Polish treasury bonds and Polish treasury bills, bills issued by the National Bank and some other specified securities are exempted from the tax. Singapore charges a 0. Stamp duty is not levied on derivative instruments. In January , Sweden introduced a 0. In July , the rate was doubled, and in January , a considerably lower tax of 0.

On a bond with a maturity of five years or more, the tax was 0. Wrobel prepared a paper for the Canadian Government in June , examining the international experience with financial transaction taxes, and paying particular attention to the Swedish experience. The revenues from taxes were disappointing; for example, revenues from the tax on fixed-income securities were initially expected to amount to 1, million Swedish kronor per year. They did not amount to more than 80 million Swedish kronor in any year and the average was closer to 50 million.

On the day that the tax was announced, share prices fell by 2. But there was leakage of information prior to the announcement, which might explain the 5. These declines were in line with the capitalized value of future tax payments resulting from expected trades.

It was further felt that the taxes on fixed-income securities only served to increase the cost of government borrowing, providing another argument against the tax. Even though the tax on fixed-income securities was much lower than that on equities, the impact on market trading was much more dramatic. On 15 April , the tax on fixed-income securities was abolished. In January the rates on the remaining taxes were cut in half and by the end of the year they were abolished completely.

Once the taxes were eliminated, trading volumes returned and grew substantially in the s. The Swedish FTT is widely considered a failure by design since traders could easily avoid the tax by using foreign broker services.

In Switzerland a transfer tax Umsatzabgabe is levied on the transfer of domestic or foreign securities such as bonds and shares, where one of the parties or intermediaries is a Swiss security broker. Other securities such as options futures, etc. Swiss brokers include banks and bank-linked financial institutions. The duty is levied at a rate of 0. However, there are numerous exemptions to the Swiss transfer tax.

These are among others: Eurobonds, other bonds denominated in a foreign currency and the trading stock of professional security brokers. The revenue of the Swiss transfer tax was CHF 1. In Taiwan the securities transaction tax STT is imposed upon gross sales price of securities transferred and at a rate of 0.

The Taiwanese government argued this "would enliven the bond market and enhance the international competitiveness of Taiwan's enterprises.

Since , Taiwan also levies a stock index futures transaction tax imposed on both parties. The current transaction tax is levied per transaction at a rate of not less than 0. The major part of this revenue came from the taxation of bonds and stocks The taxation of stock index future shares was 3. In total, this corresponds to 0. A stamp duty was introduced in the United Kingdom as an ad valorem tax on share purchases in Securities issued by companies overseas are not taxed.

This means that—just like the standard stamp duty—the tax is paid by foreign and UK-based investors who invest in UK incorporated companies. In other words, the tax applies to all companies which are headquartered in the UK, [44] albeit there is a relief for intermediaries such as market makers and large banks that are members of a qualifying exchange as a condition of their obligation to provide liquidity.

Only a minor part comes from Stamp Duty. In terms of GDP and total tax revenue the highest values were reached during the dot. This accounts for 0. The US imposed a financial transaction tax from to that was originally 0. In a "pro—Tobin tax" NGO proposed that a tax could be used to fund international development: Stephen Spratt, "the revenues raised could be used for At the UN World Conference against Racism , when the issue of compensation for colonialism and slavery arose in the agenda, President Fidel Castro of Cuba advocated the Tobin Tax to address that issue.

According to Cliff Kincaid, Castro advocated it "specifically in order to generate U. Castro cited holocaust reparations as a previously established precedent for the concept of reparations.

May the tax suggested by Nobel Prize Laureate James Tobin be imposed in a reasonable and effective way on the current speculative operations accounting for trillions of US dollars every 24 hours, then the United Nations, which cannot go on depending on meager, inadequate, and belated donations and charities, will have one trillion US dollars annually to save and develop the world.

Given the seriousness and urgency of the existing problems, which have become a real hazard for the very survival of our species on the planet, that is what would actually be needed before it is too late.

On 15 February a coalition of 50 charities and civil society organisations launched a campaign for a Robin Hood tax on global financial transactions. The proposal would affect a wide range of asset classes including the purchase and sale of stocks, bonds, commodities, unit trusts, mutual funds, and derivatives such as futures and options.

The main differences between the proposals has been the size of the tax, which financial transactions are taxed and how the new tax revenue is spent. The bills have proposed a. Harkin D-Iowa have received a number of cosponsors in the Senate and House.

The tax on futures contracts to buy or sell a specified commodity of standardized quality at a certain date in the future, at a market determined price would be 0. Swaps between two firms and credit default swaps would be taxed 0. The tax would only impact financial transactions between financial institutions charging 0. If implemented the tax must be paid in the European country where the financial operator is established.

This "R plus I" residence plus issuance solution means the EU-FTT would cover all transactions that involve a single European firm, no matter if these transactions are carried out in the EU or elsewhere in the world.

According to John Dizard of the Financial Times , the unilateral extension of extraterritorial power can only cause problems: From a US perspective, this unilateral extension of extraterritorial power by the commission goes beyond anything attempted since the US and Great Britain concluded the Treaty of Paris ending the Revolutionary War in Most institutions that try to do something like that have their own navy, and usually a larger one than the sovereign territory where they are attempting to impose the tax.

Being faced with stiff resistance from some non-eurozone EU countries, particularly United Kingdom and Sweden, a group of eleven states began pursuing the idea of utilizing enhanced co-operation to implement the tax in states which wish to participate. The proposal supported by the eleven EU member states , was approved in the European Parliament in December , [89] and by the Council of the European Union in January Proponents of the tax assert that it will reduce price volatility.

In a paper, Lawrence Summers and Victoria Summers argued, "Such a tax would have the beneficial effects of curbing instability introduced by speculation, reducing the diversion of resources into the financial sector of the economy, and lengthening the horizons of corporate managers. The French study concluded that these volatility measures "are likely to underestimate the destabilizing role of security transactions since they — unlike large ticks — also reduce the stabilizing liquidity supply".

A study of the UK Stamp Duty, which exempts market makers and large banks that are members of a qualifying exchange, found no significant effect on the volatility of UK equity prices. In the IMF published a study paper, which argues that a securities transaction tax STT "reduces trading volume, it may decrease liquidity or, equivalently, may increase the price impact of trades, which will tend to heighten price volatility".

Regarding proposals to abolish the UK's Stamp Duty, Oxera concluded that the abolition would "be likely to result in a non-negligible increase in liquidity, further reducing the cost of capital of UK listed companies".

The natural effect of the FTT's reduction of trading volume is to reduce liquidity, which "can in turn slow price discovery, the process by which financial markets incorporate the effect of new information into asset prices". The FTT would cause information to be incorporated more slowly into trades, creating "a greater autocorrelation of returns".

This pattern could impede the ability of the market to prevent asset bubbles. The deterrence of transactions could "slow the upswing of the asset cycle", but it could also "slow a correction of prices toward their fundamental values".

Habermeier and Kirilenko conclude that "The presence of even very small transaction costs makes continuous rebalancing infinitely expensive. Therefore, valuable information can be held back from being incorporated into prices.

Suchergebnis (1.760 Ergebnisse)

In , due to perceived conflicts of interest limiting his ability to run the two funds, Soros resigned from the management of the Double Eagle Fund.

Closed On:

The roots of sexual perversions lay in dullness and denial, thus, insatiable desire for more and more sex. On 15 February a coalition of 50 charities and civil society organisations launched a campaign for a Robin Hood tax on global financial transactions.

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