· The US Food and Drug Administration is advising people to avoid eating fresh crab meat from Venezuela because of potential contamination by bacteria. 〒 東京都千代田区霞が関地図電話（代表）
Independent traveller reports 19th September For an interesting photogallery of the system see http: The tourist trains continue reports Mark Enderby more pictures, 12th October who was on a tour with special extras. I have since appended some brief notes from Clive Hepworth who was here in February 21st February Steve Cossey tells me 30th November I hope to have it running again in the original Ferrocarril del Norte livery in March , at which time it will be the oldest operational steam locomotive in Colombia.
I have set up a blog site to follow the restoration at http: The locomotive ran its first charter train from Bogota to Zipaquira and back on 23rd May and ran another trip on 11th July Thanks to Tim Malcolm for this one and the photograph 2nd June Ray Schofield tells me he helped run a visit here for PTG.
This is a journey to Usaquen in the north of congested Bogota on 21st September behind this diminutive Baldwin , owned by Steve Cossey, who was assisting us with the tour. Here below, we wait for an up commuter train to pass and in the backdrop can be seen Downtown and Monseratte. There are many plinthed locomotives in the country, I have a long, long list but it needs more work than I have time to put to it 21st February FC de Antioquia Survivor.
This hacienda was once the property of the notorious drug baron, Pablo Escobar Gaviria. Thomas Kautzor tells me it came there from a private owner in Santa Fe de Antioquia. Don't get excited, I know of no live steam here but several visitors have commented on the current situation in the country which includes a tourist train and occasional freight operation.
Click here for more information latest entry 7th November James Waite was here in April and has supplied details and photographs of all known 7 extant steam locomotives 24th April Bill Read has provided a brief update which I have appended to James' report 22nd March Real steam during the was almost non-existent, with just one working steam locomotive and possibly one or more unreported firelesses - see the Zafra report updated 30th May How RTC can square that with "there are many steam locomotives, all over eighty years old, twenty of which are in daily use during the Cuban sugar cane harvest 'Zafra'" beats me.
There were barely 10 real steam locomotives that turned a wheel at all in , it was certainly wasn't true in and it was even less true in Of course, if you count steam on the tourist trains you might get a bit nearer the mark. All the previous reports which chart the demise of one of the last great steam experiences in the world have now been transferred to a separate page.
Roland Beier informs me 3rd August that during the summer holidays in July and August there is now a steam train for Cubans every Saturday from Moron to Ciegeo de Avila and back. The loco is which is kept at Patria mill for the tourist steam excursions.
Trains depart at Of course, it is not "real" steam but at least it is a train dedicated to locals and not to foreign tourists.
David Greenfield has provided a list of ex-Minaz steam locomotives at three sites in Central Havana updated 3rd December with many relocated , there is just one which has not yet been positively identified to my knowledge.
To which I have appended an explanation of what is supposed to be going on there 3rd May Trevor Heath sent a photo report showing restoration in progress 4th December Clive Fletcher-Wood has sent me some pictures 27th February which shows that the restoration of has been completed left below , is now present centre below and that is still at the Aguada service station although why it carries '' instead of '4' as it did before is beyond me.
Ray Gardiner was in Cuba in February and reports on restored steam next to the harbour in Havana updated 27th December The number of serviceable locos used for tourist purposes is quite considerable, the following were seen in steam in March on a PTG tour and are shown on the Railway Herald website 30th December Clive Hepworth visited a number of steam tourist sites in late and has sent an illustrated report of what he found updated 22nd January If you want a quick fix of an excellent photographic display of what you may have missed - check out David Longman's Cuba Gallery 28th June Minaz placed 55 redundant steam locomotives on sale back in I am not sure how many were ever sold, they didn't include many 'gems' and I believe the price asked did not reflect the poor condition of most of them.
I was later told 30th March that the sale has been 'pulled' and that the locomotives are to stay on the island pending restoration - some have already been moved to preservation sites and given a paint job. For the record you can read the original list 4th September And then there was one By , there was very little left as a memory of the good old days will be the growing museum at Christina Station in Havana and tourist operations at Trinidad and a number of closed mills.
Yoshi Matsuo tells me that a visit to Manalich mill found the line to the shed overgrown and no sign of with a Hector Molina reportedly going directly to the loading point 3rd March Tim Murray adds 17th March Likely to go to museum. They have a diesel that now goes to the LP. The Trinidad tourist train loco is laid up until at least the end of April.
The loco still does patio work on a regular basis and the staff claimed that it would work next season. The from Venezuela has gone to Patrio o Morte and is working the tourist train. Ciro Redondo has two s in shed 'under repair' including Three of the other s are dumped at the back of the mill.
A later report 2nd June suggested that at Manalich worked early in the season pending diesel repairs, was active at Prieto near the airport and at J. Perez both on occasions, with the Brasil firelesses more reliable performers.
There have been some tours which have run Minaz steam locomotives on the main line, to say that the results have been mixed would be the politest way of putting it judging from the informal reports I have had. Does all this herald the death of communism in Cuba? For those with a wider historical interest, Wayne Weiss recommends an excellent site on Cuba tramways http: Wayne Weiss of Roundbell Hobby Products has some new copies of: Zafra For full details and how to order, click here!
No live steam, of course, but several preserved locomotives and three very interesting classic diesel powered sugar railroads all of different gauges Thomas Kautzor reports. The Guayaquil and Quito Railroad is potentially one of the most splendid train journeys in the world. The days when it could be covered in its entirety by public train are long gone, but as conditions allow trains operate for visiting tour groups on. Some of the track is in very poor condition, but the tourist railbuses are still running regularly.
Next year is the centenary of the line reaching Quito, so there could be some celebrations, though the practicality of running through the city into the centre of Quito look remote.
However, by mid-April , even the railway had admitted that the repair programme was too optimistic and all the three tours I knew planned had been cancelled, at least for Read more updated 18th April The next report from Ecuador from Dr.
Michael Grimes starts "The news from Ecuador for is not good. A long period of silence ensued before the very welcome news that the railway is in sight of complete rebuilding updated again with the first train running part way 6th January It will be some 10 years since the first public plans to restore it to good order were announced. The UK's Guardian newspaper has a photo feature on the new line - I suspect this may appear elsewhere too as they are official pictures 20th March Now the spotlight is turning to the steam locomotive fleet, 53 is back in action, read about it 6th April , page includes a link to an 8 minute YouTube clip.
There will even be regular scheduled tourist steam from 4th June 6th April , the through tourist train has now been launched 3rd July Gerald Peacock points out that the railway now has a 'bells and whistles' of a website http: Apparently 14 is the next in line for restoration and work has now started on what will be a major rebuild - there is a YouTube video uploaded on 31st October - http: Dale Brown's latest update 23rd May has both 11 and 53 in regular 'main line' action.
There is even a suggestion of the web that it may have been used on regular services http: Videos of the inaugural train are available - https: Gerald writes further 16th May "Hi Rob, lots of action in Ecuador, see one recent video of no14 running https: So now we have 5 locos operational 11, 14, 18, 53 and However the atmosphere of the old railway is gone, but you can't have everything.
Never mind, as a bonus, don't miss this old BBC programme on the line http: Adolf Hungrywolf's visit in early not for the squeamish, 7th July Torsten Schneider's visit with information on then current travel 24th October Visiting tour groups in latest entry 3rd October TUT report for details of the then current activity 3rd Dec Ivor Kelly advises that there is a book on the historical side of the Ecuador Railway "The Redemptive Work - railway and nation in Ecuador " by A.
For a superb album of real steam from check out John West's site 29th September Thomas Kautzor has pointed me at an interesting set of photographs taken here in February 28th February but the link is now dead. Among lots of diesels, this shows Baldwin 8 preserved and steam derelicts at Sonsonate, and most interestingly 12 and inside the roundhouse at San Salvador - these are said to be 'serviceable'.
These two locomotives were used in on the TUT tour, referred to above. The line from San Salvador to Apopa is currently the only operational route in the country with a limited passenger service, there being no freight. James Waite was here in April and was treated to royal hospitality. Read about what he found more loco information 10th May , Thomas Kautzor has provided an update including the establishment of a museum 6th November Thomas also advises that there is a small preserved saddle tank at the port of Acajutla 18km from Sonsonate - see http: See my railway museums pages for more information 22nd January Chris Hodrien has pointed out to me that this site http: More information would be appreciated 7th December James Waite subsequently pointed out that there is a second locomotive below outside the Guyana Space Centre.
This is completely revised version and replaces the previous report. The update consists of some historical pictures of the system at Beauport quite soon after closure. A further August update is available 28th August For a superb album of real and charter steam from check out John West's site 29th September With the railway between Guatemala City and the Caribbean coast effectively defunct, James Waite's visit in April necessarily concentrated on preserved and surviving steam including industrial items - read his illustrated report more loco information 10th May RDC announced suspension of operations in Guatemala 3rd August citing the government's failure to honour its contract with the company and the failure of its legal system to enforce it.
Whatever happened there, it was bound to be bad news for the railway, its steam locomotives and especially the people on it who worked very hard to restore and operate it in the last few years. And, in turn, it is bound to have a knock-on effect on any attempts to revitalise other railways in the region. Click here for three articles from US newspapers which include the background to the case.
I have now added 26th September more links to this page, updating the sorry story but basically it looks like the end of the road for railways in this part of the country. I was pessimistic, it took less than 18 months - see http: What will happen to the residual operational steam stock left behind is unclear.
I guess some private US railroads will be after them. For some time, RDC http: Their operation is described in the links below.
Railway Touring Company visit brief report, 3rd March Steam special special extended report with many pictures, 18th January Steam special brief report with pictures, 18th January Earlier attempts to run steam specials last entry 12th September The first picture shows doing a bit of real work while on test before the event and the second why it was such an attractive operation.
Trevor Heath pointed me at a January report on http: They also have a Heisler. I asked for a first hand report, now Trevor has supplied one himself, the locomotive is defunct.. Thomas Kautzor spent nearly two weeks in Mexico in November , he saw a lot of inactive preserved steam locomotives on both narrow and standard gauges 13th December , updated 9th October See also my narrow gauge pages for information on tourist steam. A , FC del Pacifico 21, preserved at the old station in Granada - http: There is a third steam loco on the ouskirts of Chichigalpa, on display on the former trackbed of the railway to Ingenio San Antonio, their former No.
The Selva Negra coffee museum at Matagalpa maybe has an "interesting steam locomotive which was used in the early s to transport coffee from Matagalpa to the ports.
No active steam, but a long submerged steam loco and train have been recovered from a storage reservoir for the Panama Canal 23rd May , with the prospect of more to come Mike Clendining has now provided some pictures of the restored engine and the current railway situation in the country 16th May This was possibly the only all steam state railway left in the world, although in its final days it was very much a rump operation with the main line severed.
Interest centred on three features, click on individual links below or here for Neil Edwards comprehensive report from August 23rd August Renaud Olgiati reports 10th February that the works at Sapucay are now rightly considered a tourist attraction and are in part open to the public.
Realistic plans exist to re-open the whole railway - read his report. He also reports 27th May that "the management of Azucarera Paraguaya at Tebicuary have plans to turn what remains of their steam rolling stock en engines, both SG and MG, into a railway museum in the grounds of the Azucarera". Neil Edwards was here in August and you can read about what was left then.
Additionally the steam tourist service has been halted yet again, but hopefully a new service will run again from Luque in the not too distant future 22nd October The magazine Latin Tracks produced a nostalgic article on the closure of the 'working' railway at the end of November - it is available for download http: Sapucay - the original workshop which ought to be a world heritage site with its ancient machinery and another potential tourist operation latest report see above.
The former station is now a museum - http: Earlier reports last entry 22nd March Latin Tracks report on the revival of the residual railway 27th July Bad news about the Puerto Casado railway latest entry 8th August Steam Trains in Paraguay - some background information and pictures 9th March A gallery of pictures from August picasaweb.
Historically there have been a fair few rusty hulks around the country, several of which have been the subject of speculation about renovation to operating condition and one or two have actually made it. However, it seems that realistic steam operation is centred on:. Andes class No. Andes class is "now stored out of service on a siding in the open at San Bartolome, Peru.
It is in the middle of a string of stored and wrecked diesel locomotives. The loco has been stored here without any security. It is obvious that FCCA is not interested in steam excursion at this time. The Buddhist community is made up mainly of Chinese , Japanese , and Koreans. The Jewish community has shrunk in recent years due to rising antisemitism in Venezuela ,      with the population declining from 22, in  to less than 7, in The culture of Venezuela is a melting pot, which includes mainly three different families: The indigenous, African, and Spanish.
The first two cultures were in turn differentiated according to the tribes. Acculturation and assimilation, typical of a cultural syncretism, caused an arrival at the current Venezuelan culture, similar in many respects to the rest of Latin America, although the natural environment means that there are important differences. The indigenous influence is limited to a few words of vocabulary and gastronomy and many place names.
The African influence in the same way, in addition to musical instruments like the drum. The Spanish influence was predominant due to the colonization process and the socioeconomic structure it created and in particular came from the regions of Andalusia and Extremadura, the places of origin of most settlers in the Caribbean during the colonial era. An example of this includes buildings, music, the Catholic religion, and language.
Spanish influences are evident in bullfights and certain features of gastronomy. Venezuela was also enriched by other streams of Indian and European origin in the 19th century, especially from France.
In the latest stage in the major cities and regions oil of U. For example, from United States comes the influence of taste for baseball, US-style fast food, and current architectural constructions. Venezuelan art was initially dominated by religious motifs. However, in the late 19th century, artists began emphasizing historical and heroic representations of the country's struggle for independence.
Venezuelan literature originated soon after the Spanish conquest of the mostly pre-literate indigenous societies. The national musical instrument is the cuatro. The Zulian gaita is also a very popular style, generally performed during Christmas. The national dance is the joropo. In the last years, Classical Music has had great performances.
The orchestra is the pinnacle of El Sistema , a publicly financed voluntary sector music education program now being emulated in other countries. Afro-Venezuelan musical traditions are most intimately related to the festivals of the "black folk saints" San Juan and St.
Specific songs are related to the different stages of the festival and of the procession, when the saints start their yearly paseo — stroll — through the community to dance with their people. The origins of baseball in Venezuela is unclear, although it is known that the sport was being played in the nation by the late 19th century.
The immense popularity of baseball in the country makes Venezuela a rarity among its South American neighbors— association football is the dominant sport in the continent. Although not as popular in Venezuela as the rest of South America, football, spearheaded by the Venezuela national football team is gaining popularity as well.
The sport is also noted for having an increased focus during the World Cup. Venezuela is also home to former Formula 1 driver, Pastor Maldonado. The Venezuelan cuisine, one of the most varied in the region, reflects the climatic contrasts and cultures coexisting in Venezuela. The literacy rate for the adult population was already Currently, large numbers of Venezuelan graduates seek for a future elsewhere due to the country's troubled economy and heavy crime rate.
In a study titled Venezolana Community Abroad. Venezuela has a national universal health care system. Infant mortality in Venezuela was 19 deaths per 1, births for , lower than the South American average by comparison, the U. Venezuela had a total of plants for sewage treatment.
During the economic crisis observed under President Maduro's presidency, medical professionals were forced to perform outdated treatments on patients. Retrieved 17 January From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the period when it was known as the "Republic of Venezuela" from to , see Republic of Venezuela.
This article is about the country. For other uses, see Venezuela disambiguation. Gloria al Bravo Pueblo English: Area controlled by Venezuela shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green. Cult image sculpted in ceramic, Los Roques Archipelago. Petroglyph in the Waraira Repano National Park.
Spanish colonization of the Americas and Colonial Venezuela. Venezuelan War of Independence. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela. View of the tepuis, Kukenan and Roraima , in the Gran Sabana. Tepuis are among the attractions of the park, these mountains are among the oldest exposed formations on the planet. Environmental issues in Venezuela. Government of Venezuela and Politics of Venezuela. Foreign relations of Venezuela.
National Bolivarian Armed Forces of Venezuela. Law of Venezuela and Crime in Venezuela. Murder rate murder per , citizens from to Number of kidnappings in Venezuela — States of Venezuela and Regions of Venezuela. Largest cities or towns in Venezuela   . List of metropolitan areas in Venezuela. History of the Venezuelan oil industry and Energy policy of Venezuela. Moreno Mestizo population of Venezuela in White population of Venezuela in Amerindian population of Venezuela in Black and Afrodescendant population of Venezuela in Baseball in Venezuela and Football in Venezuela.
Barquisimeto Metropolitan Cathedral , Lara state. Deaths of children under one year in Venezuela according to the Ministry of Popular Power for Health. Health care in Venezuela and Mission Barrio Adentro. Venezuela portal Latin America portal. Retrieved 8 September Retrieved 5 April Retrieved 10 September Retrieved 9 October United Nations Development Programme.
Retrieved 21 September Retrieved 14 September Archived from the original PDF on 1 October Retrieved 19 March Species Data unpublished, September United Nations Environment programme. Retrieved 8 January Archived from the original on 21 April Retrieved 13 March While indicators of income and consumption showed clear progress, the harder-to-change characteristics of structural poverty and inequality, such as the quality of housing, neighborhoods, education, and employment, remained largely unchanged.
Chavez leaves Venezuelan economy more equal, less stable. Center for Economic and Policy Research. Last updated 17 November Likewise, inequality has decreased, reducing the Gini Index from 0.
Retrieved 22 May Retrieved 3 February Cannon, Barry 21 June Coup or Popular Rebellion? The Myth of a United Venezuela". Bulletin of Latin American Research. Aponte, Pedro Rafael Retrieved 2 July Chasteen, John Charles Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise History of Latin America. Cumpliendo las metas del milenio PDF in Spanish. Archived from the original PDF on 11 May University of Chicago Press. Retrieved 30 June Epic of Latin America.
University of California Press. Dickey, John Marcus Christopher Columbus and his monument Columbia: Retrieved 1 July Dydynski, Krzysztof; Beech, Charlotte A Century of Change.
Understanding Art 10th ed. Gibson, Karen Bush A Question and Answer Book. Heritage, Andrew December Financial Times World Desk Reference. From Distant Lands to the Major Leagues. Kelly, Janet; Palma, Perdo A. In McCoy, Jennifer L. The Unraveling of Representative Democracy in Venezuela. Johns Hopkins University Press. Kipfer, Barbara Ann Polarisation, Confrontation, and Violence".
In Goumbri, Olivia Burlingame. The Building of a People's Democracy. The Battle of Venezuela. Salas, Miguel Tinker Pablo Morillo and Venezuela, — Ohio State University Press. Michael; Frederick, Julia C. The History of Venezuela. The flooding also made the area unfit for most agriculture before the advent of modern, industrial farming technology. Therefore, during the Spanish colonial era , the primary economic activity of the area was the herding of millions of heads of cattle.
In the wet season most of the Llanos is flooded and travel is by boat down the numerous temporary and permanent waterways. The Orinoco Belt , entirely in Venezuelan territory, consists of large deposits of extra heavy crude oil sands. The Orinoco belt oil sands are known to be one of the largest, behind that of the Athabasca Oil Sands in Alberta , Canada. Venezuela's non-conventional oil deposits of about 1, billion barrels 1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the flooded grassland and savanna region in South America.
I have now posted these and added some background information supplied by Chris Walker more information 1st May , roster corrected 2nd April , updated 28th November People dining out or purchasing crab meat at a grocery should ask where the product came from, the FDA said.
Using Your Home's Equity Need cash? Previously an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, oil quickly came to dominate exports and government revenues.